Free Research Papers on Astronomy

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Asteroids

Astronomy coursework, term papers on Astronomy, Astronomy essays
our solar system today there are over 30 000 asteroids flying around in all directions colliding with other asteroids and planets not caring about the destruction they might convey. Our planet Earth is caught right in the middle of all of this action and is liable to entire extinction of any life forms on the planet if a large enough asteroid crosses its path. Any one single asteroid has the poss... Full-text essay
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Big Bang Theory 

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It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 bil... Full-text essay
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Big Bang Theory 

Astronomy coursework, term papers on Astronomy, Astronomy essays
It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 bil... Full-text essay
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Black Holes

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Black holes are objects so dense that not even light can escape their gravity, and since nothing can travel faster than light, nothing can escape from inside a black hole . Loosely speaking, a black hole is a region of space that has so much mass concentrated in it that there is no way for a nearby object to escape its gravitational pull. Since our best theory of gravity at the moment is Einstein'... Full-text essay
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Black Holes 

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Black holes are one of the more bizarre and intriguing predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity. Surprisingly, there is now a great deal of observational evidence that black holes do exist, both in binary star systems and at the center of most galaxies, including our own. Although we are gaining more knowledge of black holes, they still remain one of the strangest things anyone has ever heard o... Full-text essay
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Black Holes 

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Within our galaxy alone, there are millions upon millions of stars. Within our universe, there are millions upon millions of galaxies. Humans have known the existence of stars since they have had eyes. Although interpretations may have differed on what they were, they were always thought of as white glowing specks in the sky, but the mystery does not lie within what we can see, but what we can not... Full-text essay
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Comets 

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The first written records of comets date back to nearly 3,000 years ago from China and Europe. The accounts of these comets were believed to be the causes of terrible events that occurred afterwards. In more recent times, however, astronomers have found out what they really are. A comet is basically a mixture of ices, from both water and frozen gases, and dust. They have also been given the names ... Full-text essay
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Comets 

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Comets have fascinated people for millions of years, but until 1994 no one had ever had the chance to witness firsthand the destructive power of these wanderers. From July 16 to 22, fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 smashed into Jupiter, creating a series of fireballs in the giant planet's atmosphere. The string of explosions was awesome, yet the discovery that comets can wreak havoc would not h... Full-text essay
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Earth

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The universe is a shooting gallery and earth is the bullseye. The earth is always under threat of a doomesday asteroid that will wipe out civilization. There are over one thousand asteroids traveling toward earth and only three quarters are accounted for. Where are the other one forth? No one knows because the government doesn't fund NASA astrologists enough to cover the astroids. Just one im... Full-text essay
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Earth And Space 

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In Space: Despite its own special conditions,the Earth is in some ways similar to the other inner planets the group of planets nearer to the sun.Of these planets,Mercury is the closest to the sun;Venus is second;the Earth is third ;and Mars is fourth.All of these planets, including the Earth,are basically balls of rock.Mercury is the smallest in size. Its diameter is about two thirds the greatest ... Full-text essay
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Earth Planet 

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The Earth, man's home, is a planet. The Earth has special characteristics, and these are important to man. It is the only planet known to have the right temperature and the right atmosphere to support the kind of environments and natural resources in which plants and man and other animals can survive. This fact is so important to man that he has developed a special science called ecology, which de... Full-text essay
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Earth Rotation 

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The Earth is rotating around an axis (called its rotational axis). Some objects rotate about a horizontal axis, like a rolling log. Some objects, such as a skater, rotate about a vertical axis. The Earth's axis is tipped over about 23.5° from vertical. How do we define up and down in space? What would "vertical" mean? For the Earth, we can think of vertical as straight up and down with r... Full-text essay
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Eileen Collins And Chandra Observatory 

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A hydrogen fuel leak, which could have caused an engine shutdown, costly delays on the launching pad, and a year of technical difficulties didn’t stop the successful launch of the $1.5 billion Chandra X-Ray Observatory on the Space Shuttle Columbia. Nor did it stop Eileen Collins, 42, from becoming NASA’s first female commander ever after 95 missions. Collins, who has logged over 5,000 hours of ai... Full-text essay
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Extra Solar Planets 

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Earths Beyond Earth: The Search for Other Worlds In early 1990, the first extrasolar planet was detected, surprising everyone by its strangeness. More planets have now been discovered outside our solar system than in it. These planets present many great mysteries to the astronomical world. Extrasolar planets are planets that exist outside our solar system; they are orbiting a star other than our S... Full-text essay
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Galileo And Church 

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Galileo, Science and the Church, by Jerome J. Langford, are about the trials and tribulations of Galileo with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1600’s. The church did not agree with Galileo’s ideas; mainly theories associated with Copernican astronomy. The primary intention of Langford is to bring the truth of Galileo’s trials to his readers, and to show that ultimately Galileo was correct in his t... Full-text essay
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Galileo And Stars 

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I feel that the motivation of Galileo’s pursuits in Astronomy and stargazing was driven by his desire to be financially successful. Galileo was an extremely ambitious and clearly independent individual whose methods of generating scientific data epitomizes a survival of the fittest like struggle between all of the prominent scientists of his time. During Galileo's life there was no gray area of we... Full-text essay
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Galileo Galilei 

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Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy. Galileo pioneered "experimental scientific method," and was the first to use a refracting telescope to make important astronomical discoveries. In 1604 Galileo learned of the invention of the telescope in Holland. From the barest description he constructed a vastly superior model. With it he made a series of profound discoveri... Full-text essay
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Galileo Galilei 

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Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy. Galileo was the first of seven children of Vincenzio Galilei, a trader and Giula Ammannati, an upper-class woman who married below her class. When Galileo was a young boy, his father moved the family moved to Florence. Galileo moved into a nearby monastery with the intentions of becoming a monk, but he left the monastery when he was 15... Full-text essay
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Heliocentrism

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The impact of the Heliocentric Theory Heliocentric: Relating to the sun as a center; appearing as if seen from the sun's center.(Webster,447) The heliocentric theory was first introduced to the world by a Polish astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus published his views on the heliocentric theory in his book Commentariolus, in 1514, which sparked the time period now known as the Copernic... Full-text essay
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Helium And Janssen 

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A French astronomer, Pierre-Jules-CÚsar Janssen (1824-1907), first obtained evidence for the existence of helium during the solar eclipse of 1868 in India when he detected a new yellow line (587.49 nm) in the solar spectrum very close to the yellow sodium D-line. It was not possible to produce this line in the laboratory. Sir Norman Lockyer (1836-1920), an English astronomer, recognised that no kn... Full-text essay
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History Of The Solar System

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Early in the history of the solar system, when space was cluttered with the materials of its formation, the planets and their moons were heavily bombarded by meteorites. Some of the members of the solar system (Mars, Mercury and our moon, for example) still show the residuals of the primordial rain of iron and stone. On our dynamic planet earth, erosion by weather, water and ice and the conti... Full-text essay
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International Space Station

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The International Space Station is the doorway to the future of mankind and the world as it is known. The scientific and medical discoveries that will be made on the station could create billions of dollars annually. A plan like this, arranged to benefit the whole world economy, should sound like a good idea to every person, but some believe that the ISS is too risky, too ineffective, or too costl... Full-text essay
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Jupiter Moons 

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Jupiter, the largest of the Jovian planets, reigns supreme throughout the solar system. Named after the Roman god Jove, the ruler of Olympus; "Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun and is also the largest planet in the Earth's solar system. It is 318 times moremassive than Earth and is two thirds of the planetary mass in the solar system. Jupiter's surface, unlike earth, is gaseous and not... Full-text essay
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Lamont Doherty Observatory 

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Every year the Lamont – Doherty Earth Observatory holds an open house in which scientists share their studies and really let the public see what and how they do what they do. Scientists at this research center are working together studying different fields of the Geologic sciences ranging from Oceanography, Geochemistry, Seismology, and even Marine Biology share their findings with the public. Thi... Full-text essay
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Mars Polar Landing 

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A momentous occasion has been bestowed upon us. The Mars Polar Lander will try to reach its destination of Mars’ southern polar ice cap. The Lander was presumed to touch down on Friday December 3, 1999. It was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 17 on January 3, 1999 and hopefully it has finally reached the surfaces of Mars. This mission is worth $327.6 million tota... Full-text essay
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Mars 

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Mars is the fourth planet from the sun and orbits the sun at a distance of about 141 million mi. Mars is named for the Roman god of war because it appears fiery red in the earth’s night sky. Mars is a small planet that has about half the diameter of Earth and about one-tenth Earth’s mass. The force of gravity on the surface of Mars is about one-third of that on Earth. Mars has twice the diameter a... Full-text essay
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Meteorites 

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Imagine that while you’re on a peaceful Sunday afternoon stroll with your family, a large dark gray ball comes out of nowhere, just missing the head of your small child, shakes the earth, and produces a large crater in the ground a few feet ahead of you. This ball wasn’t from the young boys playing baseball across the street, and it wasn’t an acorn from the tree overhead. This ashen ball was a met... Full-text essay
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Moon

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The moon is the only natural satellite of Earth. The moon orbits the Earth from 384,400 km and has an average speed of 3700 km per hour. It has a diameter of 3476 km, which is about ╝ that of the Earth and has a mass of 7.35e22 kg. The moon is the second brightest object in the sky after the sun. The gravitational forces between the Earth and the moon cause some interesting effects; tides are the ... Full-text essay
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Moon

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The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth: orbit: 384,400 km from Earth diameter: 3476 km mass: 7.35e22 kg Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks, and many other names in other mythologies. The Moon, of course, has been known since prehistoric times. It is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. As the Moon orbits around the Earth once per month, the angle ... Full-text essay
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Moon Flight

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On May 25, 1961, John F. Kennedy delivered one of the most memorable State of the Union addresses in the history of the United States. “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the earth” (http://www.cs.umb.edu/jfklibrary, President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on ... Full-text essay
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Oceanography From Space 

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At first thought, studying the oceans from space seems to be a bizarre idea. Space observation helps oceanographers do research with manned and unmanned space systems. The space systems can be satellites and/or space shuttles that observe various features of the ocean such as sea-surface winds, sea-surface temperatures, waves, ocean currents, frontal regions, and sea color. Technological advances ... Full-text essay
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Orion

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"Down fell the red skin of the lion Into the river at his feet. His mighty club no longer beat The forehead of the bull; but he Reeled as of yore beside the sea, When blinded by Oenopion He sought the blacksmith at his forge, And climbing up the narrow gorge, Fixed his blank eyes upon the sun." ~The "Occultation of Orion" by Mr. Longfellow~ This poem was written about the Greek... Full-text essay
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Ozone Layer

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Ozone derives from the greek word ozein which means to smell. It was first discovered in 1839 by Christian Friedrick Schonbein who noticed it because of its distinctive acrid smell. He discovered this at the University of Basel in Switzerland. Ozone is merely oxygen, but not the type we breath. Ozone, O3 has three compounds while oxygen has only two. Ozone is reac- tive, meaning it does not stay s... Full-text essay
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Ozone Layer

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Some scientists have proclaimed that the human race is slowly depleting the layer of ozone which protects us from ultra violet light. In reality, humans have very little control of the world in which we live. Scientific evidence has shown that there is very little depletion in the ozone layer and the contributions the human race makes towards this depletion is and always will be insignificant comp... Full-text essay
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Planetary Physics

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A planet is a celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light " (Grolier, 1992). The only planetary system that is known to man is our solar system. It is made up of nine planets which range in size and make-up. The nine major planets in our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. There are also many othe... Full-text essay
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Saturn 

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Saturn is the second largest planet and sixth from the sun. Saturn is most known for its rings, first seen in 1610 by Italian scientist Galileo and identified as rings by Dutch astronomer Christian Huygens in 1655. The rings consist greater than 100,000 single ringlets. It is the most oblate planet because of the rapid rotation of the planet, which flattens Saturn at the poles by about 10%. Its co... Full-text essay
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SETI Program 

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Bertrand Russell wrote, “There are two possibilities. Maybe we are alone. Maybe we are not. Both are equally frightening (Jakosky 1).” The question of life in the universe is one that leaves many in a state of bewilderment. It becomes even more interesting when it leads to another question – that of intelligent life in the universe. Finding other intelligent civilizations among the interstellar sp... Full-text essay
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Shen Kua

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Astronomer,  Shen Kua was born in China in the year 1026. His family had an unbroken tradition of being civil servants. Thus his father was a local administrator of many posts from Szechwan in the west to the international port of Amoy. At Sixteen years old Shen Kua left his home to travel with his father from post to post. While traveling with his father, Shen Kua learned the responsibiliti... Full-text essay
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Solar Energy

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About 47 percent of the energy that the sun releases to the earth actually reaches the ground. About a third is reflected directly back into space by the atmosphere. The time in which solar energy is available, is also the time we least need it least - daytime. Because the sun's energy cannot be stored for use another time, we need to convert the suns energy into an energy that can be stored. One ... Full-text essay
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Solar Energy 

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Ever since the dawn of time, the sun has been a resource we cannot live or do without, so its not such a shock that man has come up with the idea of solar energy. Solar energy had many uses. Some can be dangerous and some, a very valuable asset to the modern world. Solar energy is energy derived from the sun in a form of ultra-violet rays. Its was first applied to use in 212 B.C., by the Greek gen... Full-text essay
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Solar System Planets 

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The earth is only one small planet in an extremely large system of planets, satellites, asteroids, meteors and comets that revolve around the sun. This system is referred to as the solar system. A planet is defined as a “celestial body that revolves around a central star and does not shine by its own light " (Grolier,1992). The only planetary system known to our civilization is our solar syst... Full-text essay
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Space Exploration 

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On May 25, 1961, John F. Kennedy delivered one of the most memorable State of the Union addresses in the history of the United States. “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the earth” (http://www.cs.umb.edu/jfklibrary, President John F. Kennedy's Special Message to the Congress on ... Full-text essay
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Space Station

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Finally "the next logical Step"? If America plans to continue its space exploration program, the question that must be asked next is: "Where do we go from here?" America has made major strides in space exploration in this century. We have built enormous rockets that can carry three men and their supplies to the moon and back. We have mastered the physics that are involved in sh... Full-text essay
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Tycho Brahe

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Tycho Brahe Tyge (Latinized as Tycho) Brahe was born on 14 December 1546 in Skane, then in Denmark, now in Sweden. He was the eldest son of Otto Brahe and Beatte Bille, both from families in the high nobility of Denmark. He was brought up by his paternal uncle J÷rgen Brahe and became his heir. He attended the universities of Copenhagen and Leipzig, and then traveled through the German region, stu... Full-text essay
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Universe

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Not so much a theory of the universe as a simple picture of the planet we call home, the flat-earth model proposed that Earth’s surface was level. Although everyday experience makes this seem a reasonable assumption, direct observation of nature shows the real world isn’t that simple. For instance, when a sailing ship heads into port, the first part that becomes visible is the crow’s-nest, followe... Full-text essay
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Universe And Solar System

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The two most common beliefs of the formation of the Universe and Solar System are The Expanding Universe Theory and The Big Bang. There are some comparisons between the two and some contrasts. Almost all astronomers believe that the universe is expanding although they may have different theories on how this is happening. The Expanding Universe Theory is based on the Doppler Effect, the redshift of... Full-text essay
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