Essay, Research Paper: Acid Rain

Environment

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What Causes Acid Rain? One of the main causes of acid rain is sulfur dioxide.
Natural sources, which emit this gas, are Volcanoes, sea spray, rotting
vegetation and plankton. However, the burning of fossil fuels, such as Coal and
oil, are largely to be blamed for approximately half of the emissions of this
gas in the world. When sulfur dioxide reaches the atmosphere, it oxidizes to
first form a sulfate ion. It then Becomes sulfuric acid as it joins with
hydrogen atoms in the air and falls back down to earth. Oxidation occurs the
most in clouds and especially in heavily polluted air where other compounds such
as ammonia and ozone help to catalyze the reaction, changing more sulfur dioxide
to sulfuric acid. However, not all of the sulphur dioxide is changed to sulfuric
acid. In fact, a substantial amount can float up into the atmosphere, move over
to another area and return to earth unconverted. In the following pages I will
show the effects of acid rain on: · Effect on Trees and Soils · Effect on
Lakes and Aquatic Systems · Effect on Materials · Effect on Atmosphere ·
Effect on Architecture · Effect on Humans Effect on Trees and Soils One of the
most serious impacts of acid precipitation is on forests and soils. Great damage
is done when sulfuric acid falls onto the earth as rain. Nutrients present in
the soils are washed away. Aluminium also present in the soil is freed and the
roots of trees can absorb this toxic element. Thus, the trees are starved to
death as they are deprived of their vital nutrients such as calcium and
magnesium. Not all of the sulphur dioxide is converted to sulfuric acid. In
fact, a substantial amount can float into the atmosphere, move over to another
area and return to the soils unconverted. As this gas returns back to earth, it
clogs up the stomata in the leaves, thus hindering photosynthesis. Research has
been made where red spruce seedlings were sprayed with different combinations of
sulfuric and nitric acid of pH ranging from 2.5 to 4.5. The needles of these
seedlings were observed to develop brown lesions. Eventually, the needles fall
off. It was also found that new needles grew more slowly at higher
concentrations of acid used. Because the rate at which the needles were falling
was greater than the rate at which they were replenished, photosynthesis was
greatly affected, The actual way in which these needles were killed is still not
yet known. However, studies have shown that calcium and magnesium nutrients are
washed away from their binding sites when sulfuric acid enters the system. They
are replaced by useless hydrogen atoms and this inhibits photosynthesis. Effect
on Lakes and Aquatic Systems One of the direct effects of acid rain is on lakes
and its aquatic ecosystems. There are several routes through which acidic
chemicals can enter the lakes. Some chemical substances exist as dry particles
in the air while others enter the lakes as wet particles such as rain, snow,
sleet, hail, dew or fog. In addition, lakes can almost be thought of as the
"sinks" of the earth, where rain that falls on land is drained through
the sewage systems eventually make their way into the lakes. Acid rain that
falls onto the earth washes off the nutrients out of the soil and carries toxic
metals that have been released from the soil into the lakes. Another harmful way
in which acids can enter the lakes is spring acid shock. When snow melts in
spring rapidly due to a sudden temperature change, the acids and chemicals in
the snow are released into the soils. The melted snow then runs off to streams
and rivers, and gradually make their way into the lakes. The introduction of
these acids and chemicals into the lakes causes a sudden drastic change in the
pH of the lakes - hence the term "spring acid shock". The aquatic
ecosystem has no time to adjust to the sudden change. In addition, springtime is
an especially vulnerable time for many aquatic species since this is the time
for reproduction for amphibians, fish and insects. Many of these species lay
their eggs in the water to hatch. The sudden pH change is dangerous because the
acids can cause serious deformities in their young or even annihilate the whole
species since the young of many of such species spend a significant part of
their life cycle in the water. Subsequently, sulfuric acid in water can affect
the fish in the lakes in two ways: directly and indirectly. Sulfuric acid
(H2SO4) directly interferes with the fish's ability to take in oxygen, salt and
nutrients needed to stay alive. For freshwater fish, maintaining osmoregulation
is key in their survival. Osmoregulation is the process of maintaining the
delicate balance of salts and minerals in their tissues. Acid molecules in the
water cause mucus to form in their gills and this prevents the fish to absorb
oxygen as well. If the buildup of mucus increases, the fish would suffocate. In
addition, a low pH will throw off the balance of salts in the fish tissue. Salts
levels such as the calcium (Ca+2) levels of some fish cannot be maintained due
to pH change. This results in poor reproduction - their eggs produced would be
damaged; they are either too brittle or too weak. Decreased Ca+2 levels also
result in weak spines and deformities. For example, crayfish need Ca+2 to
maintain a healthy exoskeleton; low Ca+2 levels would mean a weak exoskeleton.
Another type of salt N+ also influences the well-being of the fish. As nitrogen-
containing fertilizers are washed off into the lakes, the nitrogen stimulates
the growth of algae, which logically would mean and increase in oxygen
production, thus benefitting the fish. However, because of increased deaths in
the fish population due to acid rain, the decomposition process uses up a lot of
the oxygen, which leaves less for the surviving fish to take in. Indirectly,
sulfuric acid releases heavy metals present in soils to be dissociated and
released. For example, Aluminium (Al+2) is harmless as part of a compound, but
because acid rain causes Al+2 to be released into the soils and gradually into
the lakes, it becomes lethal to the health of the fish in the lakes. Al+2 burns
the gills of the fish and accumulates in their organs, causing much damage. So,
although many fish may be able to tolerate a pH of approximately 5.9, this acid
level is high enough to release Al+2 from the soils to kill the fish. This
effect is further augmented by spring acid shock. The effect of acid rain can be
dynamically illustrated in a study done on Lake 223, which started in 1976.
Scientists monitored the pH and aquatic ecosystem of Lake 223. They observed
that as the pH of the Lake Decrease over the years, a number of crustaceans died
out because of problems in reproduction due to the acidity of the lake caused by
acid precipitation. At a pH of 5.6, algae growth in the lake was hindered and
some types of small died out. Eventually, it was followed by larger fish dying
out with the same problem in reproduction; there were more adult fish in the
lake than there were young fish. Finally, in 1983, the lake reached a pH of 5
and the surviving fish in the lake was thin and deformed and unable to
reproduce. This case study obviously illustrates the significant effect of acid
rain on lakes and its aquatic ecosystem. Effect on Materials Acid rain also
damages materials such as fabrics. For example, flags that are put up are being
"eaten away" by the acidic chemicals in the precipitation. Books and
age-old art that are centuries old are also being affected; the ventilation
systems of the libraries and museums that hold them do not prevent the acidic
particles from entering the buildings and so, they get in and circulate within
the building, affecting and deteriorating the materials. Effect on Atmosphere
Some of the constituents of acid pollution are sulphates, nitrates, hydrocarbons
and ozone. These exists as dry particles in the air and contribute to haze,
affecting visibility. This makes navigation especially hard for air pilots. Acid
haze also interferes with the flow of sunlight from the sun to the earth and
back. In the Arctic, this affects the growth of lichens which in turn, affect
the caribou and reindeer which feed on it. Effect on Architecture Acid particles
are also deposited on to buildings and statues, causing corrosion. For example,
the Capitol building in Ottawa has been disintegrating because of excess sulphur
dioxide in the atmosphere. Limestone and marble turn to a crumbling substance
called gypsum upon contact with the acid, which explains the corrosion of
buildings and statues. In addition, bridges are corroding at a faster rate, and
the railway industry as well as the airplane industry have to expend more money
in repairing the Corrosive damage done by acid rain. Not only is this an
economically taxing problem caused by acid rain, but also a safety hazard to the
General public; as an illustration, in 1967, the bridge over the Ohio River
collapsed killing 46 people - the reason? Corrosion due to acid rain. Effects On
Humans Among one of the serious side effects of acid pollution on humans is
respiratory problems. The SO2 and NO2 emmisions give rise to respiratory
problems such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose and throat
irritations. An indirect effect of acid precipitation on humans is that the
toxic metals dissolved in the water are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and in
the tissues of animals. Although these toxic metals do not directly affect the
animals, they have serious effects on humans when they are being consumed. For
example, mercury that accumulate in the organs and tissues of the animals has
been linked with brain damage in children as well as nerve disorders, brain
damage and death. Similarly, another metal, Aluminium, present in the organs of
the animals, has been associated with kidney problems and recently, was
suspected to be related to Alzheimer's disease.

Bibliography
Elliott, Thomas C., and Robert G. Schwieger (Editors). The Acid Rain
Sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1984. Bown, William. "Europe's
forests fall to acid rain". New Scientist. Vol. 127. August 11, 1990. p. 17
Calvert, Jack G.(Editor) "SO2, NO and NO2 Oxidation Mechanisms: Atmospheric
Considerations" Acid Rain Precipitation Series, Volume 3. Toronto:
Butterworth Publishers, 1984.
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