Essay, Research Paper: Karl Marx

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Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on
life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people
think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise Above the
aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this
failure, he was still a great political leader and set the Basis of Communism in
Russia. His life contributed to the way people think Today, and because of him
people are more open to suggestion and are Quicker to create ideas on political
issues. Karl Heinrich Marx was born May 5th, 1818 in Trier. Although he had
three other siblings, all sisters, he was the favorite child to his father,
Heinrich. His mother, a Dutch Jewess named Henrietta Pressburg, had no interest
in Karl's intellectual side during his life. His father was a Jewish lawyer, and
before his death in 1838, converted his family to Christianity to preserve his
job with the Prussian state. When Heinrich's mother died, he no longer felt he
had an obligation to his religion, thus helping him in the decision in turning
to Christianity. Karl's childhood was a happy and carefree one. His parents had
a good relationship and it help set Karl in the right direction." His
'Splendid natural gifts' awakened in his father the hope that they would One day
be used in the service of humanity, whilst his mother declared him to be a child
of fortune in whose hands everything would go well. (The story of his life,
Mehring, page 2) In High school, Karl stood out among the crowd. When asked to
write a report on "How to choose a profession" he took a different
approach. He took the angle in which most interested him, by saying that there
was no way to choose a profession, but because of circumstances one is placed in
an occupation. A person with an aristocratic background is more likely to have a
higher role in society as apposed to someone from a much poorer background.
While at Bonn at the age of eighteen he got engaged to Jenny Von Westphalen,
daughter of the upperclassmen Ludwig Von Westphalen. She was the childhood
friend of Marx's oldest sister, Sophie. The engagement was a secret one, meaning
they got engaged without asking permission of Jenny's parents. Heinrich Marx was
uneasy about this but before long the consent was given. Karl's school life
other than his marks is unknown. He never spoke of his friends as a youth, and
no one has ever came to speak of him through his life. He left high school in
August of 1835 to go on to the University of Bonn in the fall of the same year
to study law. His father wanted him to be a lawyer much like himself but when
Karl's reckless university life was getting in the way after a year Heinrich
transferred him to Berlin. Also, he did not go to most lectures, and showed
little interest in what was to be learned. Karl's reckless ways were not
tolerated at Berlin, a more conservative college without the mischievous ways of
the other universities. While at Berlin, Marx became part of the group known as
the Yong Hegelians. The group was organized in part due to the philosophy
teacher Hegel that taught from 1818 to his death. The teachings of Hegel shaped
the way the school thought towards most things. Those who studied Hegel and his
ideals were known as the Young Hegelians. Hegel spoke of the development and
evolution of the mind and of ideas. Although Karl was younger than most in the
group, he was recognized for his intellectual ability and became the focus of
the group. While at Berlin "He came to believe that all the various
sciences and philosophies were part of one overarching, which, when completed,
which would give a true and total picture of the universe and man."
(Communist Manifesto, Marx (Francis B. Randal), page 15) Marx was an atheist,
and believed that science and philosophy would prove everything. Thus he had no
belief in a god of any type. Marx believed that Hegel must have been an atheist
as well because of his strong belief in the mind. Marx's doctoral thesis was
competed in 1841. It carried the title "The Difference Between the
Philosophies of Nature of Democrtius and Epicurus."(The Making of Marx's
Critical Theory, Oakley, page 11) It had to do with the Greek philosopher
Epicurus and how his beliefs related to Marxs' of that day. This thesis was an
early indication of the thinking behind Karl Marx. Much of his later work and
ideas are evident in this essay. He passed his thesis into the University of
Jena because Bonn and Berlin required an oral part to the thesis. The quickness
was also a matter in this. He passed it in early April, and got his degree in
history and philosophy in April 15, 1841. After graduation, he was unable to
find work. This caused him to take a job with the German newspaper Rheinische
Zeitung in early 1842. By the end of the year, Marx made editor-in-chief. A few
months after that in 1843 because of his radical writings, and his social views,
Marx was forced to step down as editor, and soon after that the paper closed
altogether. He married Jenny von Westphalen, and with a member of the Young
Hegelians, Arnold Ruge went to Paris to publish a radical journal on his
beliefs. It was evident in his works that he was a revolutionary that advocated
criticism of everything in existence. This was especially anticipated by the
proletariat. The proletariat were the working class of the day. They were the
poor and made up the majority of people. Marx went on to believe that the
proletariat would rise up against the bourgeoisie. Then in 1844 Marx met a man
that would change his life forever. When going to England after doing military
service, he meet Marx in Cologne in the offices of the Rheinische Zeitung. Both
of them had gone through the German philosophic school and whilst abroad they
came to the same conclusions but while Marx arrived at an understanding of the
struggles and the demands of the age basis of the French Revolution, Engles did
so on the basis of English industry. (The Story of His life, Mehring, page 93)
Friedrich Engles was born in 1820 in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of
Prussia. Like Marx he was brought up with the German philosophies of Hegel, and
like Marx, Engles began to follow the works of Hegel. These parallels between
Marx and Engles formed a relationship that would last for the rest of each
others lives. They both contributed to each others works, and co-wrote many
things. The similarity in background between the two also meant a similarity in
ideas. The both believed in the struggle of the proletariat and that it would
rise up against the bourgeoisie. Marx is considerate to be the greater of the
two philosophies. The one contrast was the way in which one solved problems.
Marx would use historical research to solve a problem, as apposed Engles who
used his imagination and pure mind to come about a solution. These differences
in culture and similarities in beliefs complemented each other well. This
outlook on society and the class war was ingenious. It was their greatest work
together, the communist manifesto, which achieved them their most popularity
among the proletariat, and created the most problems with the government for the
two. Communist Manifesto or Manifest der Kommunistischen Partel was a book
written by Marx with collaboration from Engles. Basically meaning that Marx
wrote it but he discussed the issues in the manifesto with Engles. It documents
the objectives and principals of the Communist League, an organization of artist
and intellectuals. It was published in London in 1848, shortly before the
revolution in Paris. The manifesto is divided into four parts, and the beginning
of the entire document reads "A specter is haunting Europe" The first
part outlines his ideas on history and a prediction on what is yet to come. He
predicts a confrontation between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, the
working class and the higher class. Because of the main logic behind capitalism
the bourgeoisie will seek more power and more wealth. With them doing this, the
living conditions of the proletariat will decrease. Numbers of proletariat will
increase as well as their political awareness, and will revolt against the
bourgeoisie and will eventually win. In the second part Marx discusses the
importance of Communism, and if private property is abolished, class
distinctions will be as well. The second part also stresses the importance of
the necessity of the proletariat and bourgeoisie being common and the level of
class being the same. The third part critiques other social ideas of the modern
day. The final and fourth part discussed the differences between his political
issues as apposed to those of the other oppositonal parties. This part ends in
bold capital letters "WORKINGMEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!" The days of
November 1850 fall almost exactly in the middle of Marx's life and they
represent, not only externally, an important turning point in his life's work.
Marx himself was keenly aware of this and Engles perhaps even more so. (The
Story of his life, Mehring, page 208) Living in political exile his life
changed. His ideas were no longer followed like they once were. His isolation
from the general public provided a new light in his life. Then, in 1855, his
only son died. His son showed much potential, and was the life of the family.
When he died, Jenny became very sick with anxiety, and Marx himself became very
depressed. He wrote to Engles "The house seems empty and deserted since the
boy died. He was its life and soul. It is impossible to describe how much we
miss him all of the time. I have suffered all sorts of misfortunes but now I
know what real misfortune is...." (The Story of his Life, Mehring, page
247) After the Communist League disbanded in 1852 Marx tried to create another
organization much like it. Then, in 1862 the First International was established
in London. Marx was the leader. He made the inaugural speech and governed the
work of the governing body of the International. When the International
declined, Marx recommended moving it to the United States. The ending of the
International in 1878 took much out of Marx, and made him withdraw from his
work; much like the ending of the Communist League had done. This time, it was
for good. The last ten years of his life is known as "a slow death".
This is because the last eight years many medical problems affected his life. In
the autumn of 1873 he was inflected by apoplexy which effected his brain which
made him incapable of work and any desire to write. After weeks of treatment in
Manchester, he recovered fully. He controlled the demise of his health. Instead
of relaxing in his old age he went back to work on his own studies. His late
nights and early mornings decreased his health in the last few years of his
life. In January of 1883, after the death of his daughter Jenny, he suffered
from Bronchitis and made it almost impossible to swallow. The next month a tumor
developed in his lung and soon manifested into his death on March 14, 1883.
Although Marx's influence was not great during his life, after his death his
works grew with the strength of the working class. His ideas and theories became
known as Marxism, and has been used to shape the ideas of most European and
Asian countries. The strength of the Proletariat has been due to the work of
Marx. His ideals formed government known as communism. Although he was never a
rich man, his knowledge has been rich in importance for the struggle of the
working class.
Bibliography
Himelfarb, Alexander and C. James Richardson. Sociology for Canadians: Images
of society. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryderson Limited, 1991 Mehring, F, Karl Marx,
The story of his life, London: Butler and Tanner ltd., 1936 Marx, K, The
Communist Manifesto, Germany: J. E. Burghard, 1848 "Karl Marx."
Microsoft Encarta 96 Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corp., 1993-1995 Vesaey, G.
and P. Foulkes. Collins dictionary of Philosophy. London:British Library
Cataloguing in Publication Data, 1990

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