Essay, Research Paper: Justice


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Over the last thirty years, minorities have been given a better chance to
succeed in America by way of Affirmative Action. Recently, there has been a
surge of non-minority Americans claiming reverse racism. Affirmative Action is
now being called “preferential treatment”. In the beginning, it was designed
to help minorities have a more equal opportunity in the world. A group of
non-minority Americans in California claimed that they were being denied
admittance to universities in the admitting process. This led to Ward Connerly,
a member of University of California Regents, promoting the anti Affirmative
Action message (NLSPAC, 1). Proposition 209 bans both discrimination and
preferential treatment to various minorities on the basis of race, creed, sex,
or place of origin (NLSPAC, 1). Connerly does not clearly structure his mode of
thought. His understanding of reality is not real pertaining to minorities. The
social context of Affirmative Action is its origin in the Civil Rights Movement.
It was designed to give minorities and women special consideration for
contracts, employment, and education (Froomkin, 2). Connerly is not a woman and
he does not acknowledge the fact that he is African American, a minority.
Connerly owns a consulting firm and only divulges his race when necessary, “ I
felt that it could be damaging to my business to be identified as a minority
firm,” he says (Pooley, 4). Connerly does not understand or cannot relate to
other minorities about the struggles that minority’s face getting into
corporate America. Since Connerly has already received his degree, owns his own
business, and does not reveal his race for contracts, he does not understand
what minorities who do not have these things go through. Therefore, his mode of
thought is completely obscured and distorted. I consider Connerly’s group to
be minorities. However, he cannot relate to his group because he does not speak
the same language as his group. By language, I mean social attitude. Most
minorities try to accept all of the help they can get. For instance, the
government will defer a company’s capital gains taxes indefinitely if that
company sells a cable system to a partnership controlled by a minority (Birnbaum,
1). There have been other programs like this one where minorities benefited.
This too will end if Affirmative Action is ended. Connerly does not understand
that minorities still need special privileges to be as successful as
non-minorities. He does not realize how much minorities stand to lose.. The
meanings or opinions of a situation depend on which group you belong to in
society. There are two different opinions to the same situation. One is held by
minorities and the other by non-minorities. Connerly associates himself with the
non-minorities. Connerly’s inherited situation changed twice during his
childhood. When he was four, his mother died and he was taken in by his middle
class uncle and aunt (Pooley, 3). At age twelve, he went to live with his
grandmother who was in the lower class bracket. It was during this time that
Connerly’s work ethic and also hate of his race began (Pooley, 3). He worked
to help his grandmother and resented the fact he went to a lower income
household. Connerly could not further his ways of knowing in his inherited
situation because he disassociated himself from others in his race. This is due
to struggles that he faced. Connerly’s struggle with nature is one of his
biggest problems. It is a natural fact that he was born a black male in the late
1930’s in a lower class family. Civil Rights had not been established and he
was considered an inferior citizen. Connerly wishes he could live in a
colorblind society. Therefore, he could not be classified by something he wishes
he were not. The struggle of an individual with another individual happens on a
daily basis. Minorities and non-minorities compete for contracts, educational,
and employment opportunities on a daily basis. This causes major conflict
between people. Critics of Affirmative Action claim that schools rely too
heavily on racial double standards (Gwynne, 2). Now that Affirmative Action is
helping minorities, non-minorities are feeling the same effects of not getting
jobs and contracts that they had been getting previously. The playing field is
more equal and non-minorities are getting upset. They are the ones who are being
passed over for jobs, contracts, and educational opportunities. That is how
Connerly got involved with Proposition 209. His friends, Jerry and Ellen Cook,
(a white family) were upset that their son was not accepted into the school of
his choice (Lynch, 1). Helping the Cook’s became his mission. This is another
example of struggles between social groups. The particular issue, Affirmative
Action, always leads to clashes between race and gender. America has many
problems and race is a large part of many problems. People of different races
have been arguing since the forming of our country. It has even lead to a civil
war. Gender is another problem since women are steadily moving up the corporate
ladder. People have been trying to overcome the limitations imposed upon them by
society for centuries. Non-whites have to prove themselves worthy and competent.
Society has labeled them as slackers, lazy, and inferior. Women have been trying
to overcome being seen only as domestics and homemakers. This has taken many
years. Women could not even vote until the twentieth century. It has gotten
better for women, but there is still a glass ceiling that they reach. Connerly
has a problem with the struggle regarding his understanding with his group. He
does not fully understand the true day to day struggles that minorities go
through. The human possibilities are endless for minorities if given the chance.
The government has come to realize the detrimental effects that would come if
Affirmative Action were abolished. Social groups are very practical about their
concerns. People’s basic concerns are making a descent living and providing
for their families. This is why minorities are upset that Connerly is supporting
Proposition 209. Social groups are close knit groups. When something happens to
effect the group the bond gets closer, however there is backstabbing, and mud
slinging among them. When Connerly went public, there was an outcry from
minorities all over the country. They rallied together and tried to stop this
initiative. Rev. Jesse Jackson organized rallies and others got petitions
together. Social groups exist for very real purposes. Hispanics and women are
gearing up to lobby together to save as many programs as they can (Birnbaum, 1).
Individuals in this country have not been very successful fighting for causes by
themselves. Connerly is just another example of one group using a person from an
opposing group to make a point. Connerly chose to help end the very program that
helped him start his own business. Connerly has been very successful at his
consulting firm. He does not realize that by ending some of the positive effects
that has come from the program. The Joint Center for Political and Economic
Studies shows that Affirmative Action programs opened new opportunities for
blacks, but the measurable benefits in terms of wages and employment have been
quite small (Birnbaum, 2). While social groups act with and against one another,
they also think with and against one another. It is human nature for people to
bond more closely when a crisis arises. When Connerly went public, minorities
all across the country thought of him as a traitor. People tend to think of
themselves as hard working individuals. Connerly made this thought more
prevalent in people’s minds. He brought to the surface many feelings of old
mentalities to minorities. Old ways of thinking such as racial discrimination
for jobs. It has taken minorities many years to win the confidence and respect
of non-minorities and Connerly made people think back to hard times. Social
groups also think against one another because of competition. There is a great
competition for jobs, educational opportunities, and contracts between
minorities. Everyone is out for self. If given the opportunity, people will make
other look bad to give them a boost. In this particular case, the social groups
hurt their own chances by not thinking together and coming up with a game plan.
The minorities did not work together. Women had their own agenda, while Latinos
had theirs. No one worked together as a collective group to help end this
proposition. African-Americans called the Rev. Jesse Jackson, who lives in a
different state, to help them. He has clout in Washington D.C., but the decision
was being made in California. People act in accordance with the position of the
groups to which they are members. Minorities are very hostile to non-minorities
who are in competition with them for contracts, jobs, and educational
opportunities. They understand the fact that through Affirmative Action the
government is trying to give them an equal chance for success. Also, minorities
understand that non-minorities are upset and jealous over the “preferential
treatment” given to minorities. Minorities tend to act on the defensive and
they try to make sure that certain policies such as Proposition 209 stay in
place for the future generations. They also try to help society understand the
inherited situation of minorities. This is done through events such as Black
History Month and other cultural events. Many minority groups have heightened
cultural awareness. Groups ten to act in a certain way. It has taken many years
but African-Americans have tried to disprove the stigma of the character that
they are loud, defiant, and lazy. Minorities, especially African-Americans and
women, have tried to dispel those myths. They strive by trying to change the
mindset of people and also by educating the younger generations on what is
appropriate and how to help themselves. Connerly does not strive in accordance
with the character and position of the group in which he belongs. He is trying
to change the surrounding world, but against his group. Connerly has a false
consciousness towards Affirmative Action. He has taken the position that
everyone loses with the program. The direction of this will to maintain produces
problems for minorities. Sometimes they are seen as “stepping out of line”
or taking advantage of the system. This is Connerly’s view of Affirmative
Action. Connerly believes that colleges teach segregation by allowing ethnic
ceremonies at graduation and by letting racial groups live (as a collective
group) on the same floors in the dormitories (Lynch, 8). It is his perception
that when African-American students get out of school, they will have been so
sheltered by segregating themselves they will not know how to deal with white
America in the outside (business) world. His mentality is African-Americans are
always looking for a handout. They have separated themselves so long that they
expect other races to treat them the same. It is sad that the opinion the
Connerly takes is that Affirmative Action is only hurting African-Americans. The
concepts that Affirmative Action produces for African-Americans is a more equal
chance than before of getting the best jobs, contracts, and educational
opportunities. African-Americans have formed the thought that equality can only
be made through justice. Justice in this case is the Affirmative Action Program.
Since their ancestors did not have an equal opportunity, they want to make sure
that they and the next generations have a better opportunity. The crisis of
supporters of anti-Affirmative Action is causing disorder in many states in the
country. The problem is how can opposers of Affirmative Action believe that the
program is going to make the racial situation better in America? Human nature
allows us to have a dominant group. The dominant group in our culture has always
been white males. Since the time when our country was first founded, white males
have been the primary focus. African-Americans, Indians, and women have been
downplayed as being by-standers during every major historical event. Minorities
in the culture were seen as people who just did not need to succeed. They were
there to assist the white males in society. During the Civil Rights Era, the
government realized that minorities would never make it in society if they were
not given a more equal chance. This brought about the Affirmative Action
Program. It is hard to believe that an African-American male is leading this
group of opposers to Affirmative Action. He should understand clearer than
almost anyone about the hardships that African-American males face. The fact
that he denies that Affirmative Action has never helped him in his life is
troublesome. Ward Connerly is leading a group to end Affirmative Action. He and
his followers believe that Affirmative Action is bad and should be ended. They
feel it is doing the opposite effect than what it was designed to do. Connerly
believes it is making minorities expect a handout or helping hand because they
are a minority instead of because it is needed. He feels African-Americans, in
particular, have become lazy and dependent –not self-sufficient like
Affirmative Action was intended. The future of the country depends on programs
like Affirmative Action. If they cease to exist, society will become more one
sided than ever. I am hopeful that Connerly is not successful. It is hard enough
now for minorities to get jobs. It was even tougher for them thirty years ago.
But if the program is gone totally, getting jobs will be more difficult than
ever. Connerly believes race should not matter, but he has not had to go look
for a job in the last twenty years. Society needs programs like Affirmative
Action and minorities are not going to let one man hold them back.
Birnbaum, Jeffery. “Turning Back the Clock.” URL:
(March 20, 1995) Froomkin, Don. “Affirmative Action under Attack.” URL: (October 23, 1998) Gwynne, S.C. “Back to the
Future.” URL:
(June 2, 1997) Lynch, Michael. “Racial Preferences Are Dead.” URL:
(February 1998) New Liberal Society Political Action Committee. “About Ward
Connerly.” URL: (February 1999) Pooley,
Eric. “Fairness or Folly?” URL:
(June 23, 1997)

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