Essay, Research Paper: Cognition


Free Psychology research papers were donated by our members/visitors and are presented free of charge for informational use only. The essay or term paper you are seeing on this page was not produced by our company and should not be considered a sample of our research/writing service. We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. If you need high quality, fresh and competent research / writing done on the subject of Psychology, use the professional writing service offered by our company.

What are some other key biases that influence judgment? Judgment seems to be
influenced by a variety of things each have their own implication on judgment.
Overconfidence serves as a bias on judgment. Fischhoff, Slovic, and Lichtenstein,
in 1997, tested this idea. The participants were given the question
"Absinthe is a: A) liquer or B) a precious stone." The subjects were
to choose the correct answer, and state the probability of being correct. It was
found that when the subjects were 100 percent confident in their answers, they
were only correct 80 percent of the time. This provides evidence that there is
in fact, a dissociation between knowledge and awareness. Another bias that
influences judgment is the hindsight bias. This is commonly referred to as the
Monday morning quarterback, saying "He should have…." This bias
works on the premises that hindsight is 20/20. We can see the hindsight bias in
many psychology experiments where the subjects are asked to predict the outcomes
of an event, doing so with chance accuracy. After being told the outcomes, the
subjects say that the predictions would be easy because the outcomes are
obvious. What they are failing to do is to carefully compare the outcomes with
reasoning, which may propagate inaccuracy. The confirmation bias is another bias
which influences judgement. This bias happens in a variety of forms. First, when
subjects are assessing a belief, they are more likely to seek evidence that
confirms the belief than evidence that does not support it. Second, when
disconfirming evidence is made available to them, subjects often fail to use it,
in adjusting their beliefs. Third, subjects will forget non-supporting evidence,
and show memory bias toward cases similar to their beliefs. Finally, subjects
regularly fail to consider alternative hypotheses, which might explain the
available data as well as the current beliefs. Logic can influence judgement to
a certain degree. Logic is concerned with whether a particular conclusion is
brought about by a particular set of premises. So, when the subjects show the
belief-bias patterns, they are not distinguishing between good and bad
arguments. Instead, they are willing to support a bad argument that leads to a
conclusion which they believe is true, and they are willing to reject a good
argument, if it leads to conclusions already believed false. Nevertheless, these
biases can influence judgement, but they can be combated if recognized in our
cognitive capabilities.
Good or bad? How would you rate this essay?
Help other users to find the good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones.
Like this term paper? Vote & Promote so that others can find it

Get a Custom Paper on Psychology:

Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on Psychology: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written papers will pass any plagiarism test, guaranteed. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

Related essays:

How do human beings make decisions? What triggers a person to take action at any given point? These are allquestions that I will attempt to answer with my theoretical research into Leon Festinger’s t...
Psychology / Cognitive Process
Do all of our cognitive processes withdraw from the same cognitive bank? How is it that we are able to drive a car, chew gum, talk on the phone and listen to music all at once? Is it possible that ou...
Psychology / Cohabitation
The process of an unmarried couple living together is known as cohabitation. In earlier years this was a form of taboo, it was a cause of great concern and morality among most people. To live togethe...
Psychology / Color Effects
Color in the environment and how persons perceive can greatly affect their productivity and mood. Each person has a different abilities of being able to screen out various stimulus that is around the...
Psychology / Common Sense
When someone says that psychology is a process of using simply common sense, this is far fetched. Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. (Myers,1998) Psychology is filled with hu...