Essay, Research Paper: Prenatal Development


Free Psychology research papers were donated by our members/visitors and are presented free of charge for informational use only. The essay or term paper you are seeing on this page was not produced by our company and should not be considered a sample of our research/writing service. We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. If you need high quality, fresh and competent research / writing done on the subject of Psychology, use the professional writing service offered by our company.

Prenatal development is the period in development from conception to the onset
of labor. Perinatal period is the period beginning about the seventh month of
pregnancy and continuing until about four weeks after birth. Postnatal
development is the period in development the follows directly after birth. The
germinal stage is the stage lasting about ten -fourteen days following
conception before the fertilized egg becomes implanted in the uterine wall. The
embryonic stage is the stage in which major biological organs and systems form.
The fetal stage is the stage in which is marked by rapid growth and preparation
of body systems for functioning in the postnatal environment. Viability is the
ability of the baby to survive outside the motherís womb. The gestational age
is the age of the fetus derived from onset of motherís last menstrual period.
The number of older mothers is on the rise in the U.S. as women postpone
pregnancy to establish careers or for other reasons. Healthy women older than
thirty-five routinely deliver healthy infants just as other between the ages of
twenty and thirty-five do. Teenagers, however, may be at a greater risk for
delivering less healthy babies. Lack of prenatal care is a big reason. Diets,
while pregnant, must be sufficient not only in number of calories but also with
respect to the right amount of proteins, vitamins, and other nutrients. Stress
also plays a big role in delivering a healthy baby. Cultural beliefs about
potentially harmful consequences of frightening or stressful events on fetal
development are pervasive, and many societies encourage a calm atmosphere for
pregnant women. The social support a pregnant woman receives from family and
friends is an important factor that can lessen the consequences of stress during
pregnancy. Another reason is the complicated nutritional needs of teenagers.
Teenage mothers give birth to as many as 500,000 babies in the U.S. every year.
It is suggested to women that are thirty-five or older undergo a test. Not in
all cases does the woman have to be certain age. In some cases women must
undergo an amniocentesis which is a small sampling of the fluid surrounding the
developing fetus by inserting a needle and drawing fluid. This test is designed
to diagnose fetal developmental disorders and/or genetic disorders.
Ultrasonography is a method using sound wave reflections to obtain a
representation the developing fetus. Support within the womb: the placenta. The
placenta is a support organ formed by the cells from both blastocyst and uterine
lining; serves as exchange site for oxygen, nutrients and waste products. The
umbilical cord is made up of blood vessels in which oxygen, nutrients and waste
products are transported between placenta and embryo. As extra precaution the
fetus is surrounded in a fluid-filled, transparent protective membrane known as
the amniotic sac. Teratogen is any environmental agent that can cause deviations
in prenatal development. Causing behavioral problems to death. There are a
number of diseases that can cause complications to a pregnancy. These are just a
few of the many diseases that can cause harm: toxoplasmosis, hepatitis B,
diabetes, and chlamydia. FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome) is a cluster of fetal
abnormalities stemming from motherís consumption of alcohol. This disease can
be avoided. Most infantís are born in a hospital, although there are some
alternative birth settings such as, birthing centers (home-like setting).
Statistics show that births directly supervised under a midwife, have less
complications and distress. Preparing for childbirth, prepared childbirth (also
known is ouch), is procedures practiced during pregnancy and childbirth designed
to minimize pain and reduce the need for medication during delivery. A cesarean
birth is the delivery of a baby through a surgical incision in the womanís
abdomen and uterus. During the delivery, a fetal monitoring device is used to
monitor fetal heartbeat. In the first stage of labor , the neck of the uterus,
dilates and thins to open a passage through the birth canal. When the water is
about to break, the babyís head rests inside the cervix. Then, transition, the
baby shifts to the birth canal. After the resting in the birth canal, the baby
is ready to be born. The head rotates sideways after it emerges. Thus, allowing
the placenta to fall. Infants born with low-birth weight are in luck. Despite
the immediate obstacles facing low-birth weight babies, many become normal
children and adults. Newborns and infants display a number of states. A large
part of their time in engaged in REM sleep, a state that may provide them with
stimulation even when asleep.
Good or bad? How would you rate this essay?
Help other users to find the good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones.
Like this term paper? Vote & Promote so that others can find it

Get a Custom Paper on Psychology:

Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project. If you need a custom essay on Psychology: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written papers will pass any plagiarism test, guaranteed. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

Related essays:

Previous research has found that recency and primacy in memory is affected by tasks given to persons before recalling groups of related or unrelated words given to them by the tester. Subjects are gi...
Psychology / Prosocial Behavior
I first became interested in personal interactions in high school. As the group psychologist for my circle of friends, I was exposed to many different type of people and how those people dealt with s...
Psychology / Prozac Effects
Peter D. Kramer, M.D. tells of his first experience with Prozac involving a woman named Tess. Tess was the eldest of 10 children, born to a passive mother and an alcoholic father. Tess was physically...
Psychology / Prozac
At first it was the cure all people were looking for. Then it became the drug they were afraid to take. Somewhere between these two extremes lies the truth about the drug Flouxetine, better known as ...
Psychology / Psychoactive Drugs
There is one person I know that has been addicted to psychoactive drugs. He was addicted to LSD and Cocaine. He spent about a year and a half snorting cocaine and taking hits of LSD. For one whole ye...