Essay, Research Paper: Macbeth As Tyrant

Shakespeare: Macbeth

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Thesis: To trace the degradation of Macbeth from a hero to a conscious villain
to an unrepentant tyrant. I. Macbeth as a Hero. A. Admired warrior B. Duncan's
Admiration II. Macbeth as a Conscious Villain A. First tidings of villainy B.
Murder of Duncan C. Guilt-Ridden Soliquoy III. Macbeth as a non-repentant Tyrant
A. Murder of Macduff's family B. Selfish thoughts of sleep C. Feelings of
Invincibility Macbeth, like most tragedies tells the fall of the protagonist
from grace. Macbeth, originally a hero, degrades into a conscious villain who
feels guilt and then into an unmerciful, non-repentant tyrant. A man once
heralded as a hero becomes the bane of the land and his people. At the start of
Macbeth we are introduced to him and it is implied that he is a great warrior
and a great man. He is the hero of the recent battle and is the subject of
rewards from King Duncan. In fact one critic describes him as "A great
warrior, somewhat masterful, rough, and abrupt, a man to inspire some fear and
much admiration. There was in fact, much good in him … certainly he was far
from devoid of humanity and pity."(Bradley "Macbeth") This paints
the picture of an admired, somewhat inpersonable hero who was admired for his
bravery and courage. In fact even Duncan, his later victim, admired him. Duncan
gives him another kingdom and appoints him the Thane of Cawdor. The captain says
of Macbeth to Duncan that: For brave Macbeth - well he deserves that name --
Disdaining fortune, with his brandished steel, which smoked with bloody
execution, Like valor's minion carved out his passage Till he faced the slave;
Which nev'r shook hands, nor bade farewell to him, Till he unseamed him from the
nave to th' chops (I, ii, 16-24) These are the words of a man who admires
Macbeth, and at this point rightly so. This is the heroic Macbeth of whom we are
speaking. Unfortunately Macbeth soon begins his down fall and becomes a
conscious villain. Macbeth degradation to a conscious villain begins with his
first tidings of villainy. These tidings begin when Macbeth hears that the
Duncan's son is the next in line for kingship. Macbeth says of this: The Prince
of Cumberland! That is a step I must fall down or else o'erleap. For in my way
it lies. (I, iv, 47-50) This is the point at which we see Macbeth start to
become a man driven by his ambition for the throne. A man willing to kill for
it. From this point in the story Macbeth's villainy is not yet set in stone and
is urged onward by his wife's calls of cowardice. Macbeth soon acts on this
ambition through the murder of Duncan. However his acts lead him toward a guilty
conscious. After he murders Duncan he is haunted by his guilt. He cries out that
"I'll go no more. I am afraid what I have done; Look on 't again I dare
not."(II, ii, 49-51) In these lines it is clear that Macbeth regrets his
action. According to John Andrews this "is his first attempt to bring about
a … transposition (to transpose "the structural conditions of his own
mind into the external world"); in parricidal terms making himself the sole
sovereign of his world." (Andrews #?) In other words his need for power is
so great that his ambition is willing to "o'erleap" his humanity to
get what he desires. His guilt from his murderous action continues throughout
Act II, scene ii. In Act II, scene iii we begin to see the cloud of guilt lifted
from him and he slowly becomes an unrepentant tyrant. Macbeth's murder of Banqou
is the beginning of his descent into the abyss of true tyranny. He murders a man
with whom he once was a dear friend. He murders Banquo in hopes of securing the
crown of which he wanted so much. He says: They hailed him father to a line of
kings. Upon my head they placed a fruitless crown and put a barren scepter in my
gripe. (III, I, 60-63) He murders this time with little guilt and the only fears
that haunt him do so out of fear of discovery and not of guilt. At this point
"The idea of Macbeth as conscience-tormented man is a platitude as false as
Macbeth himself."(Scott ?#) Perhaps the most heartless act of Macbeth's
reign is that of murdering Macduff's family. He murders completely innocent
people for the sake of vengeance. His first instincts and feelings of his heart
overtake him. He states that: From this moment the very firstlings of my heart
shall be the firstlings of my hand … to crown my thoughts with acts, be it
thought and done: The castle of Macduff I will surprise. (IV, ii, 147-150) And
amazingly from this horrendous action there appears to be no guilt. It is said,
"Macbeth has no conscious. His main concern throughout the play is that
most selfish of all concerns: to get a good night's rest."(Scott ?#) He has
no feelings for others but envy, "He envies the murdered Duncan in his
rest."(Scott ?#) At this point after all his actions his main want is rest.
Truly he has become an unfeeling tyrant. The tragedy of Macbeth has a common
plot, that of a hero losing his heroism. Macbeth once the admired warrior soon
becomes the hated tyrant of Scotland. Through key points in the play you can
trace this devastating downfall. From Hero to Unfeeling tyrant, that is the
tragedy of Macbeth.

Bibliography
Consulted Bibliography Andrews, F. John, ed. William Shakespeare: His Work, II.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985 Bradley, AC "The Character of
Macbeth." England in Literature. Ed. James E. Miller Jr., et. al. Illinois:
Scott Foresman and Co., 1973. Scott, Mark, ed. Shakespeare for Students.
Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1992 Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth,
The British Tradition. Eds. Ellen Bowler, et. al. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
1996
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