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Zoology

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Butterflies are flying insects, which comprise the order Lepidoptera
with. There are about 15,000 to 20,000 kinds of butterflies. Butterflies are
holometobore insects. The largest butterfly ever found is the Queen
Alexandra’s butterfly. Scientific and non-scientific vocabulary words which
must be learned before reading this section in alphabetical order: Abdomen:
(noun) 1. The part of the body in mammals, that lies between the thorax and the
pelvis. 2. In arthropods the major part of the body behind the thorax.
Appendage: (noun) (1. Something attached to a larger entity.) 2. A subordinate
or derivative bodily part Conceal: (verb) to keep from observation, discovery,
or understanding. Exceedingly: (adj.) Extreme. Minuscule: (adj.) Minute.
Omatidea: Proboscis: (noun: plural). A long, flexible snout. Pollinator =*
Pollinate: (verb) to fertilize by transferring pollen from an anther to a stigma
of. Pheromone: Simultaneously: (adj.) Happening, existing, or done at the same
time. Spherical: (noun) 1. A three-dimensional surface all the points of which
are equidistant from a fixed point. (2. Ball.) Spiracle: Stimulate: (verb) stir
Thorax: Valve: (noun) 1. A membranous bodily structure that retards or prevents
the return flow of a fluid (2A. A mechanical device that regulates gas or liquid
flow by blocking and uncovering openings. 2B. The movable control element of
such a device. 2C. A device in a brass wing instrument that permits change in
pitch through rapid variation of the air column in a value. (noun) 1. A fair
equivalent or return for something. 2. Monetary or material worth.) MODULE
1:Butterfly Physiology Butterflies are insects, which belong to order
Lepidoptera. Their body divides into three segments: abdomen, head and thorax.
Usually adult butterflies contain antennae, compound eyes, six pair of legs and
a hard exoskeleton with their head, thorax and abdomen. Also micro sensory hairs
cover butterflies’ outer bodies and scales cover the wings, which is rarely
seen. Now let’s get back to our body segments. The most important parts of the
head are: 1.antennae 2.eyes 3.proboscis Antennae: The antennae are used for two
important jobs: $ It’s used for balance in flight. Because butterflies have
fragile (breakable) wings, they can easily be worn out in daily use and when
they are attacked by other species, which attack their wings rather than their
body. When this happens, a butterfly can keep flying because of their antennae
fix its balance. $ They are also helpful for the sense of smell. Female
butterflies release kind of scents (pheromones) into the air which male
butterflies can detect even from 2 kilometers away. These scents help the
butterflies to find and mate each other. Eyes: Eyes are very big and spherical
organs in butterflies. Butterflies have compound eyes “containing thousands of
hexagonal shaped omatidea.”* Each omatidea (or minuscule sensor) is located at
a small different angle from the others. They are directed in every direction so
they’re able to see every direction simultaneously. But because of this
advantage, nature gave the butterflies a big disadvantage: they have exceedingly
small brain and omni-vision, which enables them to focus: the clearest vision
they can see is blurred. Butterflies’ eyes are sensitive to three basic
visions: 1.light 2.movement (motion) 3.and color Butterflies can separate night
from day, but cannot distinguish (ex.) red from purple. They don’t have enough
ability to specify who or what is in front of them. *From http://www.butterflyfarm.co.cr/farmer/bfly2.htm
Proboscis: Butterflies’ feeding mechanism is a long double-barreled tube,
which is named as ‘proboscis’. They feed with liquid substances, so their
mouths are shaped like a straw. People generally think of butterflies as feeding
from different kinds of nectars, but they also include mud, cow dung, water and
tree sap in their diets. Thorax: The thorax is the middle part of the body,
which connects the appendages (four wings and six legs). $ The butterflies’
ears are located in the thorax, also. They’re made of tight membranes, which
is similar to the human eardrum. Just under the membranes, there are hairs but
they cannot be seen from outside. The membrane vibrates when a sound wave hits
the membrane, which leads the membrane to touch the hairs. Then, the hairs sense
the vibration so they send a message to the brain indicating the location of the
sound. Abdomen: Abdomen is also a very important part of a butterfly’s body.
It includes the respiratory, circulatory and digestive systems. $ Respiratory
system: Because butterflies feed liquid substances, the only thing they excrete
is liquid also. The anus is located at the end of the abdomen and hidden
(concealed) well. $ Circulatory system: Circulatory system is very simple in
butterflies; “ The heart is a pump attached to a long tube that extends from
the abdomen to the head. The blood is pumped through this tube and released into
the tissues. Through a pressure gradient, the blood seeps through the tissue
back to the abdomen. There it is sucked back into the heart and pumped forward
again. There is no transportation of oxygen in the blood. Butterflies have
valves called spiracles along either side of their bodies. Some of these
spiracles, located mostly along the abdomen, allow oxygen to enter. Other
spiracles exhale carbon dioxide. In this way oxygen will enter the body
directly. Once inside, there is a network of tunnels similar to the network of
veins in the human body. Oxygen will travel directly to where it is needed and
pass into the tissue.
Butterflies have four wings. They have many kinds of wings in many different
colors, which even sometimes can make up a picture. Usually, the pair of wing on
the front is bigger than the second pair of wings, which are located at the back
of the butterfly. MODULE 2: Reproduction. The only thing that the butterflies
earn is that they reproduce.
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